And, now, Dr. EYEnstein’s home turf:  Research!

We have published and continue to research and work to publish in areas of binocularity.  Dr. Hussey has gone past 30 papers published, almost entirely in peer-reviewed journals.  PDFs of those papers are here for reading and downloading.  Always remember that the papers are aimed at a professional audience, so they may not be written in the most reader-friendly way. 

Also in this area are some videos either from our research with Eyetronix, or some videos Dr. Hussey made to explain problems with binocular vision in a more friendly video format.  In addition, one of the major instrument manufacturers asked Dr. Hussey to provide case studies using the hand-held retina photo device we use.  That was a nice diversion.

Dr. Hussey has consulted with or is consulting with Eyetronix, PinpointEyes (Hyperion Labs), and Luminopia, but is not a paid consultant.

Research Articles

A Flicker Therapy for the Treatment of Amblyopia

Standard clinical treatment methods for amblyopia penalize the non- amblyopic eye, with subsequent compliance problems, and do not address the associated binocular vision abnormality.

A Pilot Study on the Geographically Remote Treatment of Intermittent Central Suppression Using Electronic Rapid Alternate Occlusion

Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is a repetitive loss of sensation in central vi- sion that occurs in the absence of strabismus and amblyopia. We used electronic rapid alternate occlusion to treat the ICS of 10 students enrolled in a Job Corp’s residential educational program.

An Idealized Experiment on The Effect of Decreasing Magnocellular Signal on Visual Sensation

Idealized or “thought” experiments can be used to investigate theoretical principles. The present idealized experiment uses a neurological rheostat to decrease magnocellular signal in an otherwise visu- ally normal subject to probe for possible consequences of the magnocellular impairment that is often linked to reading problems (dyslexia).

Binocular Visual Sensation in Reading A Unified Theory

Current visual sensory theory focuses on the dual pathway nature of the visual sys- tem. Two pathways carry information from the eye to the brain, the parvocellular (detail and color) and magnocellular (motion) pathways. The magnocellular pathway has been implicated as a cause of dyslexia. Clinically, intermittent central suppression has been shown to be associated with reading problems.

Binocular Visual Sensation In Reading II: Implication of a Unified Theory

Both magnocellular pathway defects and intermittent central suppression show links to dyslexia. The prior paper suggested a theory of intermittent central suppression based on a magnocellular pathway defect. This paper expands on that theory and suggests some further implications particularly for reading, amblyopia and the need for further research.

Correcting Intermittent Central Suppression Improves Binocular Marksmanship

Do two eyes have any intrinsic advantage over one eye for combat marksmanship? Intuitively, having two eyes work together (binocularity) seems beneficial.

Development of Stereopsis Using Eyetronix Flicker GlassTM to Treat Amblyopia in Congenital Unilateral Post-Cataract-Surgery Aphake

Early or congenital cataract is typically treated with early surgery, commonly without pseudophakic implants. Surgery is o9en followed with patching and optical correction, including extended wear contact lenses. Some level of amblyopia is expected to persist depending on how early surgery is performed and what post- surgical therapies are accomplished.

Examination of Binocular Visual Sensation Over Time with Routine Testing

Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is an afferent sensory defect in vision that interferes with detail vision producing symptoms of “dyslexia.” Our knowledge of ICS has suffered due in part to lack of routine testing. This paper proposes the routine use of ICS testing as developed by the author.

Improved Compliance with a Novel Eyetronix Flicker Glass Therapy for the Treatment of Amblyopia

To evaluate compliance and quality of life with a novel technique for amblyopia treatment (Eyetronix Flicker Glass, EFG) in a group of children who had been previously and unsuccessfully treated by patching.

Increases in Binocularity Periods with Treatment of Intermittent Central Suppression Contradict Suppression as Solely Inhibitory

Intermittent central suppression (ICS), an intermittent loss of central visual sensation, has been associated with reading problems.

Initial Evaluation of the Eyetronix Flicker Glass

Amblyopia is a neurological development disorder that presents with deficits in spatiotemporal vision processing resulting from an active suppression process.

Intermittent Central Suppression caused by Cervical Trauma Whiplash

Whiplash cervical trauma has been shown to cause visual changes. Intermittent central suppression (ICS) has been shown to be associated with reading problems.

Intermittent Central Suppression in One Identical Twin

Central suppression is found with different types of strabismus and amblyopia. Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is an intermittent loss of visual sensation in the area of central vision occurring in the absence of strabismus and amblyopia.

Intermittent Central Suppression Suffered After a Rough Landing on a Bicycle

Seth, a 16-year-old male student-athlete, suffered a concussion during trail riding in 2014 when his bike came apart during a jump. The patient’s occupational therapist referred him for a vision examination and therapy following vestibular therapy. Unresolved post-concussion symptoms included headaches, problems seeing the ball in sports, and reading problems reminiscent of “dyslexia.”

Intermittent Central Suppression: A missing link in reading problems?

Much work has been done searching for a link between vision problems and reading problems. Certainly, a strong case can be made that ocular motor malfunctions can affect reading efficiency.

Is Anti-Suppression the Quest for Visibility?

Vision science defines the fundamental action of the vision system to be the generation of visible percepts. Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is an intermittent, usually alternating, loss of visual sensation, a repetitive loss of that visual percept.

Job Corps Student Sees New Future

Imagine going to school for eleven years not being able to read;

My new iPhone 7

Problems with cell phone signals getting to my new iPhone 7 provide an analogy for one of the primary sensory defects vision therapy can deal with, suppression and intermittent central suppression in particular.

Relationship Between Ocular Functions and Reading Achievement/Reply

Hall and Wick point out some of the disagreement in the literature among methodologically sound studies researching a visual basis for reading problems.

Remote treatment of intermittent central suppression improves quality-of-life measures

Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is a repetitive intermittent (‘‘on-and-off’’) loss of central visual sensation without strabismus or amblyopia. These repetitive seconds-long suppressions have been suggested to create visual confusion and instability that would cause vision symptoms, contribute to reading complaints, and even impair reading.

Speculations on the Nature of Visual Motion Optometric Implications

I present a discussion suggesting visual flicker is motion in stimulus form. Repetitive flicker should improve magnocellular function, and by extension reading disabilities and intermittent central suppression.

Sudden Onset Diplopia

Sudden onset diplopia can be the result of underlying systemic or neurological conditions. I present the case of a 32-year-old woman with a previously diagnosed convergence insufficiency, who developed sudden diplopia.

Temporal Characteristics of Intermittent Central Suppression

Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is a repetitive suppression of central vision in non-strabismic/non-amblyopic individuals. Preliminary estimates have been made of the temporal and spatial characteristics of ICS. ICS has been implicated in reading problems.

The Neurology of Amblyopia: A Further Evaluation of Data from the Eyetronix Flicker Glass Clinical Study

Gold standard penalization therapies for amblyopia are thankfully being challenged by new techniques and new technologies. One such technology, rapid alternate occlusion or alternating flicker was recently studied and improved visual acuity and stereopsis in anisometropic amblyopes.

The On-Switch for Seeing

The conventional wisdom on suppression as a cortical competitive inhibition is difficult to reconcile with the clinical picture of intermittent central suppression (ICS). Equally difficult is to reconcile the suggested link of ICS to reading problems (symptoms of dyslexia) with the hard science on the visual pathways in dyslexia.

The Pharmaceutical Treatment of ADD, Weight Gain, and Zombies

In June of 2010, Joint Conference on Theoretical and Clinical Optometry, a discussion- oriented educational meeting sponsored by OEPF and hosted by Pacific University, addressed ADD/ADHD.

Visibility, Suppression, and Implications for Downstream Visual Development

Non-strabismic intermittent central suppression is a loss of visibility at the level of the lateral geniculate nucleus. When put into a developmental context, this implies that all amblyopia has a deprivation component.

Who’s on First? Is It Fixation That Drives Sensation? Or Is It Sensation That Controls Fixation?

Fixation is the pause in saccadic eye movements that allows visual information to be sent to the cortex. Small fixational eye movements support stability of sensation during fixation, but yet to be established is whether stable sensation is required for properly controlled fixational eye movements.